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Lucubrate Magazine, March 1st, 2023

With rapid workplace digitalisation, the energy crisis and transition, and the need to empower learners to manage their working and learning careers, European countries have been updating their TVET systems to keep up with labour markets’ changing skill demands.

Different Skills (Photo: Adobe Stock)

Many European countries distinguish between IVET (initial VET) and CVET (continuing VET). This article combines the two and uses the general abbreviation TVET (technical vocational education and training). 

IVET as “general, or vocational education and training carried out in the initial education system, usually before entering working life”. They define CVET as “education or training after initial education and training — or after entry into working life”, aiming to help people acquire or further their knowledge and skills and continue their personal or professional development.


The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) newsletter looks into different trends for technical vocational education and training (TVET) in Europe [1]. The newsletter points out, among others, the following: 

Fewer and Broader TVET Qualifications in Europe

Many countries are reducing the number of their TVET qualifications while broadening their profile and increasing their occupational scope and flexibility. 

Rethinking the Design of TVET Qualifications in Europe

TVET programmes should be learner-centred and offer access to face-to-face and digital or blended learning (and) flexible and modular pathways based on recognising outcomes.

Blending skills in TVET Curricula in Europe

Stakeholders across Europe agree that one of the critical roles of TVET is to empower students to become active citizens and to foster the inclusion of disadvantaged learners. TVET curricula must reflect occupational skills and impart general knowledge and transversal skills and competencies to learners to help them face broader societal and labour market challenges.

Learning Site Diversification in Europe

The workplace is no longer seen as a place to practice classroom knowledge but rather as allowing learners to acquire specific skills. Workplace learning has increased across Europe, often at the expense of classroom instruction. In many countries, we find a clear shift from classroom teaching to in-company training.

Opening TVET to Adults in Europe

Modern TVET at the upper secondary and post-secondary levels accommodates a substantial proportion of young adults. Across Europe, we find that adults (over 25) are following the TVET. For many programs, we find mixed-age structures.

The Future of TVET in Europe

The newsletter underlines that it is crucial to rethink the relationship between the content and the delivery of TVET: combining and integrating general subjects with occupation-specific and transversal skills and competencies will require new pedagogy and curriculum design approaches. 

The overall conception of TVET in Europe is gradually changing. While this impacts the delivery of TVET, its institutions and its structures, it also increasingly affects its content. To be prepared for the future, TVET needs to re-balance general subject knowledge, occupation-specific skills and transversal competencies. 


[1] Briefing note – 9178 EN, European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop), 2022. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

Lucubrate Magazine March 2023

The photo on the top of the article: Adobe Stock

(Photo: Adobe Stock)

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Lucubrate Magazine
Lucubrate Magazine

Lucubrate Magazine highlights trends in education and development. Development in this context can be technological, educational, individual, social or global, and everything related to education.
Lucubrate Magazine is a global based on the web magazine with the main office in Norway.

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