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Technical and vocational programmes remain a male bastion, while the opposite is exact for tertiary education. Subject choice is also gender-segregated. Only just over a quarter of those enrolled in engineering, manufacturing and construction programmes, and information and communications technology programmes are women.

The Global Education Monitoring Report [1] describes factors that perpetuate gender inequalities in schools. Here you will find some few of the statements from the report. The comments are related to Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET).

Photo: Biju Boro/UNICEF

Gender Gaps in Education Attainment and Achievement

Access to a sustainable and quality education is one of the most significant challenges facing the world today and tomorrow. By working to ensure that every child can go to school and that we can all continue to learn throughout our lives, our goal must be to give everyone the necessary skills to contribute to the development of their societies.

Despite the achievement of parity on average in school participation globally, many gender gaps remain in educational attainment and achievement. There are differences between regions: Sub-Saharan Africa is far behind in gender parity at all education levels, while Southern and Central Asia have made rapid progress. There are differences between countries, three-quarters of which have not achieved equality in upper secondary completion, with disparity at the expense of both boys and girls. There are differences within countries: More vulnerable girls and boys, whether as a result of poverty or location, migration or displacement, are most at risk of falling behind. And there are differences between generations, with older women still suffering from past and current inequality and discrimination in norms, socio-economic opportunities and education systems, all feeding into one another. The next two sections speak to those forms of inequality.

Female Students are Often Enrolled in Fields as Food and Nutrition, Cosmetology and Sewing.

Technical and vocational programmes account for 22% of upper secondary education enrolment and are disproportionately male. Globally, the share of females enrolled in upper secondary technical, and vocational programmes are 43%, with regional shares ranging from 32% in Central and Southern Asia to 50% in Latin America and the Caribbean. Female students in such programmes are often predominantly enrolled in fields such as food and nutrition, cosmetology and sewing. Gender norms, which often translate into segmented employment opportunities, determine to a large extent what education opportunities are open to boys and girls.

Photo: Hanna Adcock/Save the Children


  1. GLOBAL EDUCATION MONITORING REPORT 2019GENDER REPORT Building bridges for gender equality, UNESCO 2019

Lucubrate Magazine November 2019

The photo on the top: Three cheerful men baristas standing behind the counter, by Adobe Stock, Drobot Dean

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Lucubrate Magazine
Lucubrate Magazine

Lucubrate Magazine highlights trends in education and development. Development in this context can be technological, educational, individual, social or global, and everything related to education.
Lucubrate Magazine is a global based on the web magazine with the main office in Norway.

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